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HomeFitnessHigh Key Intestine Well being Terminology 

High Key Intestine Well being Terminology 


Whether or not you might be studying about intestine well being as a part of a structured course or are studying extra about intestine well being by yourself, it might take time to lookup key terminology.  

Right here, we’ve pulled collectively a very powerful terminology associated to intestine well being in an easy-to-read glossary. All through the weblog under, you can find hyperlinks the place you’ll be able to be taught extra concerning the subject, and on the finish, you can find a complete listing of analysis articles to discover.  

Glad studying!  

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Intestine Well being (Biomedical Perspective) 

Intestine well being is outlined by an absence of a set of biomarkers, particularly gastrointestinal signs (e.g., stomach ache, diarrhea), illness (e.g., inflammatory bowel illness, colon most cancers), elevated intestinal permeability, mucosal irritation, and the deficiency (and even extra) of short-chain fatty acids.  

Intestine Well being (Wellness Perspective) 

Intestine well being is the energetic course of by which individuals turn out to be conscious of a extra profitable existence that advantages the intestine and all well being components related to it. 

Wellness 

Wellness is an energetic course of by which individuals turn out to be conscious of, and make selections towards, a extra profitable existence. 

Gastrointestinal Illnesses 

Gastrointestinal ailments have an effect on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus. Some examples embody nausea, heartburn (GERD), lactose intolerance, diarrhea, gallstones, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and Chron’s illness. Many gastrointestinal ailments have a part associated to the intestine microbiome.  

Useful Vitamin 

Useful vitamin is the observe of contemplating each side of well being, food regimen, and total life-style when giving vitamin suggestions. It aligns with the ideologies of practical drugs. Intestine well being and wellness are a cornerstone of practical vitamin.  

Microbiota 

The microbiota contains all dwelling members forming the microbiome. A lot of the microbiota are micro organism, however additionally they embody fungi, helminths, and viruses.  

Microbiome 

The microbiome is a neighborhood of micro organism, fungi, and viruses that reside in and on the human physique. The intestine microbiome refers back to the neighborhood of microbiota or microbes that reside within the intestine.  

Symbiosis 

The best way wherein organisms reside collectively for his or her mutual, and due to this fact, intrinsic profit. In reference to the human physique, symbiosis is a useful relationship between the host (the human physique) and the microbes that inhabit in and on it. The intestine microbiome is described as a “symbiotic relationship” between microbes and people. There may be symbiosis when there’s a inhabitants of intestine microbes that assist well being.    

Dysbiosis  

Dysbiosis may be outlined as a discount in microbial variety and a mixture of the lack of useful microbes within the microbiome, both in quantity or kind. It’s known as dysbacteriosis when it refers particularly to bacterial populations.  

Biofilms 

Biofilms are aggregates of micro organism, fungi, and different microorganisms that reside in communities. Biofilms are made up of starchy matrices that shield the microorganisms from the surroundings. Relying on whether or not they home pathogens or commensals and probiotics, they are often useful or dangerous.    

Digestive System 

The organs that soak up meals and liquids and break them down into substances that the physique can use for power, development, and tissue restore.  

Digestion 

The advanced means of turning the meals you eat into vitamins, which the physique makes use of for power, development, and cell restore wanted to outlive. The digestion course of additionally includes creating waste to be eradicated.  

Ingestion  

Additionally known as the cephalic section, or just “consuming,” ingestion refers back to the entry of meals into the gastrointestinal tract. 

Epithelial Cells  

Epithelial cells are these lining the lumen of the abdomen and small gut.   

Pathogens  

Pathogens are microbes that make us sick by an infection.  

Pathobionts 

Pathobionts are members of the microbiota that exert particular results on the host’s mucosal immune system related to the event of medical illness. They’re low-virulence microbes.  

Commensals (Commensal Microbes) 

Commensals refer collectively to the traditional micro organism within the intestine. They improve the digestion of macronutrients and synthesize short-chain fatty acids and nutritional vitamins. 

Probiotics 

Additionally known as probionts, probiotics are symbiotic micro organism that present a profit to the host by making nutritional vitamins and regulating immune operate. Probiotics confer well being advantages by the identical mechanisms as your commensal micro organism. 

Prebiotics  

Prebiotics are meals substrates that nourish and stimulate the expansion of microbes that assist human well being whereas additionally decreasing disease-causing micro organism. Prebiotic-rich meals feed the microbes, which in flip create a number of substrates, together with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). 

Synbiotics 

Dietary supplements wherein prebiotics and probiotics are discovered collectively.  

Psychobiotics 

Psychobiotics are useful micro organism (probiotics) or assist for such micro organism (prebiotics) that affect micro organism–mind relationships and have an effect on psychological well being. 

Postbiotics 

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the intestine microbiota digest and break down prebiotics. They’re additionally known as microbial metabolites.  

Quick-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)* 

*As they relate to intestine well being 

SCFAs present gasoline sources to the colon. 

Antibiotics  

Prescription drugs that eradicate pathogenic micro organism to deal with infections. Typically, antibiotics should not particular to pathogenic micro organism, to allow them to additionally eradicate commensal bacterial, altering the steadiness of intestinal microbes.    

Enteric Nervous System (ENS) 

The ENS, additionally known as the intrinsic nervous system, is likely one of the most important divisions of the gastrointestinal tract. Actually, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is also known as the “second mind” as a result of it’s able to appearing independently of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous programs, though it might be influenced by them. 

Vagus Nerve 

The vagus nerve is the primary nerve of your parasympathetic nervous system. This technique controls particular physique features resembling digestion, coronary heart charge, and immune system. These features are involuntary, that means you’ll be able to’t consciously management them. 

Intestine-Mind Axis (GBA) 

The GBA is the pathway for bi-directional communication between the intestine, through the enteric nervous system, and the mind, through the central nervous system.   

Microbiome-Intestine-Mind-Axis (MGB Axis) 

The function of the microbiome in modulating gut-brain signaling has turn out to be extra obvious in recent times, giving rise to the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGB axis).  The MGB axis is the pathway for bi-directional communication between the microbiome, the intestine, and the central nervous system.  

Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis (HPA Axis) 

The hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA axis) is likely one of the most vital parts of the MGB axis. It supplies a major organic response to disturbing stimuli. The intestine microbiota performs an vital function in shaping mind features and habits, together with the exercise of the HPA axis. 

Elevated Intestinal Permeability 

The intestines are semi-permeable. The mucosal layer absorbs water and vitamins from the meals, in addition to metabolites and different chemical compounds from intestine microbiota. Nevertheless, some folks have an impaired mucosal barrier operate on account of irritation or an infection, initiating components that result in elevated permeability. With persistent irritation, there are persistent modifications within the mucosal barrier operate, and it opens the door to the event of ailments that have an effect on the GI tract and your complete physique.  Typically, it’s known as “leaky intestine syndrome.”  

Bacterial Translocation 

Bacterial translocation is outlined because the passage of viable micro organism from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to extraintestinal websites 

Irritation and Continual Irritation 

Irritation is the immune system’s pure response to an irritant. If the immune system is profitable at defending and therapeutic the realm, irritation will go down, and the realm will now not harm. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, irritation isn’t useful to the physique. Some situations, known as autoimmune ailments or persistent inflammatory ailments, assault the physique’s cells by mistake. This causes irritation that’s dangerous to the physique. 

Cytokines 

Cytokines are small proteins which can be essential in controlling the expansion and exercise of different immune system cells and blood cells. Inflammatory cytokines, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are markers of irritation.  

Antinutrients 

Antinutrients are parts present in meals that have an effect on the physique’s capability to soak up vitamins or convert these vitamins into substances the physique can use. They’re naturally present in plant meals, particularly grains, pulses, and legumes, but additionally leafy greens. 

Therapeutic Weight loss plan 

A therapeutic food regimen is a meal plan that controls the consumption of sure meals or vitamins. It’s a part of the therapy of a medical or dietary situation.

 

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References 

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016508520355086  
  1. https://analyticalsciencejournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pmic.201400329  
  1. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langas/article/PIIS2468-1253(21)00071-6/fulltext  
  1. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02655/full 
  1. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.601939/full 
  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10659341/ 
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5102282/  
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2785020/  
  1. https://www.cdss.ca.gov/agedblinddisabled/res/VPTC2/9percent20Foodpercent20Nutritionpercent20andpercent20Preparation/Types_of_Therapeutic_Diets.pdf  
  1. https://www.mdpi.com/2039-7283/7/4/987  
  1. https://tutorial.oup.com/ajcn/article/73/2/361s/4737561  



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